Do you know how our eyes work?

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The entire human body is a complex interconnected system. But just as surprising, it is also extremely fragile and alerts us in different ways to our health. Vision is one of the most delicate sections and discovering how our eyes work has been the challenge of doctors for a long time. 

To understand how the sense of sight works, reviewing the handling of a camera is the best analogy. After all, the development of this technology emerged under the premise of imitating the processing of light that begins in the eyeballs and ends in the brain.

Eye anatomy

A complete review of the parts of the eye serves to clarify its functioning. All the light rays that make up what at the end of this process are known as ‘images’ and begin their journey through the visual apparatus in the cornea. Inside, a second window is responsible for filtering the light: the iris. The zone that is also the one that puts the color.

Right in the middle of the iris, the entrance hole is marked by the pupils. The available lighting conditions the size of this access; if it is a lot, they contract to let only the necessary pass. When the situation is the opposite, they expand in an effort to capture all possible rays.

Once inside, the next stop is the lens. A lens that in perfect condition quickly and automatically focuses on any object present in the visual field. The journey continues to the retina, a region where visual cells make a first interpretation of the information received. Data that is finally sent to the brain through the optic nerves for the final transformation.

How our eyes work: the identification of colors

Within the cells of the retina, two ‘workgroups’ carry out the color processing. The first is cones, which work during daylight hours or in perfectly lit environments. They are divided into three types, according to the tones and variants that each of them can interpret from blue, red, and green.

At night, as well as in dark spaces, the canes come into action. Its ability to analyze and decode is much more limited. They allow us to identify black, gray, and, eventually, some variations between them.